Location, structure and history : Lchashen fortress is situated on high hills in the Southern part of the village of Lchashen. It occupies more than 35ha, and stretches over 15 hills their slopes and gorges. The fortress which is located approximately 50-100m above the surroundings stands high over the neighbourhood. The total length of the external walls of the castle and the settlement are 5000m. The area itself and the surroundings are very stony being covered with the remains of the shelters. The Lchashen fortress has 2 citadels and 22 small and medium stone hills and towers. The high and wide walls embracing the fort are constructed of rough uncut Basalt rock which are placed so that their smooth parts make up the external walls. The average width of the wall is 3.5m, in the most vulnerable places and the citadel entrance the width can be more that 5m.
After the reduction of the level of the lake around 430 mausoleums and 31 mausoleum hills were discovered, providing scientists with artifacts from the IV millennium B.C. to the second half of the II millennium B.C. Early period burials (IV-III millennium B.C.) are represented through stone boxes and above ground graves; the graves of the first half of II millennium B.C. are represented with cells or cubicles. Graves from the second half of the II millennium B.C. start turning into stone boxes. Among the most attractive monuments of Lchashen is the Cuneiform message by King Argishti I of the Kingdom of Van. Argishti mentions his campaign towards lake Sevan and the invasion of the town of Ishtikuni that is most probably the same as the Lchashen fort-settlement. The 19 cuneiform record is made on a piece of rock that used to be a lake side zone, facing the lake before lake water level reduction, now it is situated near the village post office. The record being a brilliant example of petroglyph chronicles of the Kingdom of Van, adds to the interesting pool of monuments of Lchashen village and sheds light on the ancient historical events of Gegharkunik in general.

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